Waste Management

Surging population growth in cities is not only challenging city leaders to find better ways to deliver transportation, energy, public safety and other municipal services, it’s also forcing them to deal with more garbage. The good news is that smart solutions are emerging in the solid waste management arena. Technologies are coming to market that can help cities collect and process waste more efficiently and recover valuable materials from the waste steam. In this chapter we examine how smart technologies are enabling cities to manage municipal solid waste (MSW) in an efficient and sustainable manner. As in other city responsibility areas, information and communications technologies (ICT) are driving many of these new solutions, particularly in the area of garbage collection. But scaled-up applications in the realm of biological and industrial engineering are also involved.

The growth of garbage

Municipal solid waste refers to the garbage that’s familiar to most of us. It’s your everyday household trash – wrappers, food scraps, junk mail, plastic containers – minus any hazardous, toxic, electronic or medical waste.

In more developed economies, recycling, composting and energy recovery programs are already diverting significant volumes of municipal waste from landfills. Still, the numbers indicate that the overall municipal waste stream continues to grow.

In a landmark report released in 2012, the World Bank estimated that urban residents worldwide generated 1.3 billion tonnes (or metric tons) of municipal waste per year. By 2025, cities are expected to nearly double that amount, producing 2.2 billion tonnes.

Moreover, the amount of solid waste being generated is outpacing the rate of urbanization. This phenomenon is, in part, linked to the rapid growth in developing countries, where rising incomes and affluence are accelerating consumption. China, for example, surpassed the United States as the world’s largest waste generator almost a decade ago.

Why managing solid waste matters

Cities need to effectively and efficiently deal with solid waste for several reasons. Let’s take a quick look at them.

Protecting public health. First and foremost, cities manage waste to mitigate its public health impact. As a breeding ground for bacteria, insects and vermin, accumulated trash has long been linked to the spread of air- and water-borne diseases. The Industrial Revolution and mass movement of workers to cities spurred the first rigorous efforts to address and improve urban sanitation. These efforts included systematic waste collection with disposal via dedicated incineration plants and landfills. 

Protecting the environment. The environmental impacts of traditional waste disposal methods – and their effects on public health –‒came under closer scrutiny after World War II. In the U.S., federal authorities passed legislation regulating the construction and operation of landfills to prevent, among other things, landfill debris from leaching into and contaminating groundwater.

Today, most landfills are lined and the problem of landfill greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions garners more attention than leaching. Landfill gases are produced by the breakdown of organic materials. They contain carbon dioxide, methane, volatile organic compounds, hazardous air pollutants and odorous compounds that can adversely affect public health and the environment.

Methane is of particular concern. It is 25 times more effective at trapping heat in the atmosphere than carbon dioxide. Methane from landfills represents about 12% of total global methane emissions.

There are also significant carbon emissions released from the transportation of municipal solid waste.

Controlling costs. Managing solid waste can take a huge bite out of a municipal budget. For cities in less affluent countries, trash collection and disposal often represent the largest single budget item. Moreover, the global cost of managing garbage is going up, most severely for those cities in low-income countries. The World Bank predicts the annual global garbage bill will jump from the current $205 billion to $375 billion by 2025.

Stricter government regulations play a role in higher waste management costs. For example, in the 1990s, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) required that authorities in charge of existing municipal waste landfills either install groundwater and gas monitoring programs – plus adhere to other operating standards – or close down their landfills. For many communities the price tag to meet the new require ments was too high. In Texas, the number of landfills dropped from more than 1,000 to the 100 in operation today.

Similar restrictions are in effect in Europe. In Germany, untreated municipal solid waste has been effectively banned from landfills since June 2005.

Promoting sustainability. Waste management practices have become increasingly linked to the goal of sustainability. Programs that promote waste prevention, recycling and material recovery directly support emerging sustainability goals by reducing demands on resources and energy and the need to create more landfills.

The zero waste movement represents an even broader push for sustainability. It not only advocates for eliminating waste through waste prevention and recycling, it works toward restructuring production and distribution systems to make everything reusable – in theory completely eliminating the need for landfills and incineration. This notion of intentionally designing products in a way that their materials can be continually returned to the production process is the basic tenant of what’s called the circular economy.

A number of cities – San Francisco, Austin, Texas and Ljubljana, Slovenia among them –have officially adopted zero waste as a goal. So has the country of Scotland.

Seeing waste as an asset

The pursuit of sustainability represents one shift in the thinking around modern waste management practices. Another is that waste represents a source of assets from which to recover both materials and energy. This emphasis on recovery departs from the traditional “reduce, reuse, recycle and dispose” mantra chanted by waste management pundits .

“The first message for municipalities considering best practices for waste management is to transition from seeing discarded materials as a waste, a liability, toward recognizing each scrap as a potential asset to be recovered and returned to the marketplace,” says Michael Theroux, a resource recovery consultant and Council Advisor who advocates for clean conversion for recovery of energy and raw materials at his Teru Talk website.

This focus on broad recovery of waste stream components strives to shrink the volume of garbage that goes into problematic landfills and incinerators. But it’s also introducing the view that waste represents a revenue-generating resource. Cities now have the opportunity to sell their waste streams to companies that sort, divert and process refuse into products that have genuine market value.


Promoting sustainability: A SECOND LIFE FOR PLASTIC BOTTLES IN ROSTOCK

Germany is among the most advanced countries when it comes to recycling, and in the city of Rostock, Council member Veolia is converting one billion plastic bottles each year into granulate used to make new bottles. Once they are collected and transported to the processing center, the bottles are pre-sorted by color, with their caps and any residual waste removed,.

The bottles are then ground into flakes and subjected to a hot wash. Processing the flakes into food-grade is achieved by a mechanical-chemical recycling step. After being purified in a final step and packed into big bags, these PET flakes can be delivered to manufacturers of plastic bottles and manufactured into ”new” PET bottles.


 

Understanding the character of waste

For cities embarking on new waste management initiatives, experts advise that you first get to know your garbage. Municipalities must understand the nature of waste generation in their particular community, including what’s in it, where it’s coming from and how much of each type is present. “You cannot manage what you do not measure,” says waste consultant Theroux.

He advises that waste characterization studies include city demographic, land use and business data. The use of geographic information system data (GIS) can help plot physical location of waste generators, while useful analytical tools such as “cluster analysis” help city management understand where there are concentrations of large-volume generators of certain waste types.

Getting smart about waste management

Smart solutions are already working their way into the waste management arena. Navigant Research reports that smart waste management technologies now touch 43% of the global solid waste stream. And more convergence

is on the way. The research firm estimates that 644 million tons of waste was managed by smart waste technologies in 2014. This volume is expected to increase to 938.4 million tons by 2023.

Smart waste solutions generally fall in these four phases of waste management:

  • Smart waste collection
  • Smart material recovery
  • Smart energy recovery
  • Smart waste disposal

Let’s look at each of these areas a bit closer.

Smart waste collection

Collecting municipal solid waste is an expensive and sometimes polluting proposition. It requires an army of drivers who operate fleets of trucks that typically get poor gas mileage and spew emissions.

Smart waste collection solutions offer relief in several ways. They can eliminate unnecessary pick-ups on collection routes, along with the associated operating and maintenance costs for collection vehicles. They can also monitor participation rates for waste reduction programs such as recycling.

Trash container sensors

Time and fuel is wasted when garbage trucks include mostly empty trash containers in their collection schedule. To help better determine when trash containers really do need to be emptied, waste companies are installing micro sensors in them that communicate their fill-level status to a central data center. Only when the sensors indicate the container is almost full is the container added a collection route.

Trash can sensors can also be installed in conjunction with an integrated solar-power compactor that pushes down the contents of the container. This adds capacity to the container and further reduces the number of collection trips required.

RFID tags on trash and recycling bins

Some cities have started to embed radio frequency identification (RFID) tags in trash and recycling bins. In the UK, they’re sometimes called “bin bugs.”

The tags are associated with a specific resident or address and, similar to a barcode, can be read by equipment on collection trucks. Collected RFID information is sent to a city database where it can be analyzed to help cities in several ways. For instance, RFID enables collection trucks to record the weight and filling level of bins. Historical analysis of this data lets waste managers optimize collection routes and schedules. The result is fewer trucks running fewer routes results reduces truck emissions and air pollution. A European Commission technical study on the use of RFID in the recycling industry indicates that use of RFID systems can reduce waste collection costs by up to 40% due to the decrease in fuel consumption and air pollution.

In Cleveland, the city’s solid waste department used RFID container tagging to link trash and recycling bins to homeowners. After analyzing its trash stream data, the city determined that 42% of the 220,000 tons of trash collected by the city every year is recyclable. Calculating the resale value of the recyclables along with the savings in dump fees by removing these recyclables from the waste stream, the city expects to generate $5.5 million in total savings.

Another use for RFID data is to help track which residents set out their trash and recycling bins. Cities might then target educational programs toward those who don’t participate in recycling.

Finally, waste collectors are looking to incorporate RFID technology into pay-as-you-throw (PAYT) programs, where residents are charged for trash collection based on the amount they throw away. The city of Grand Rapids, Michigan has successfully deployed such a system.

GPS truck tracking

The use of global positioning systems (GPS) has proved helpful to optimize waste collection routes, improve driver behaviors and cut oper-ating expenses. These systems help waste managers ensure truck drivers are adhering to routes and schedules and that there’s no excessive idling or speeding, which can consume additional fuel.

A study published by the Aberdeen Group noted a 13.2% reduction in fuel costs with adoption of GPS vehicle tracking. There was also a 13.4% reduction in overtime costs.

GIS-based route planning

A geographic information system (GIS) is used to construct, record, analyze, manipulate and display geographic information. Many cities have had GIS systems in place for a number of years.

GIS technology is now starting to play a significant role in modern solid waste management operations. It can help with planning waste collection routes, as well as prudently siting recycling centers, material recovery facilities, yard waste depots and landfill locations.

Smart material recovery

After collecting refuse and recyclables, the recovery of valuable waste stream material can begin. Let’s now look at some of the smart processing solutions that extract waste stream assets.

Advanced material recovery facilities

An advanced material recovery facility is commonly referred to as a MRF (pronounced “murf”). It is typically a large building where collected waste enters on a conveyor belt and, as it moves forward, is separated into various piles for recycling markets.

A variety of mechanical systems are used to sort and separate the good stuff from the waste stream. Magnets pull out ferrous metal. Air jets

are used to suspend lighter plastics and paper so that heavier products, such as glass and non-ferrous metals, fall out of the stream. To identify and sort non-ferrous metals, infrared and even x-ray scanning are sometimes used. Plastics are typically sorted by hand, a practice that adds considerably to the expense of operating a MRF.

Material recovery plants generally fall into two categories. Clean MRFs only accept recyclables already separated at the collection point. Dirty MRFs accept comingled trash that includes recyclables, organic waste and everything else that goes into a residential garbage can. A dirty MRF can actually recover more material than a clean MRF because it processes the entire waste stream and targets a greater number of materials for recovery.

Mechanical biological treatment

In addition to clean and dirty MRFs, a third type of recovery system has entered the picture. Mechanical biological treatment (MBT) – also known as a wet MRF – treats solid waste both mechanically and biologically. A mixed waste stream enters these facilities and magnets, shredders and other types of separators mechanically remove metals, plastics, glass and paper. Some MBT facilities will also separate combustible elements from the waste stream, such as plastics and organics, and convert them to refuse-derived fuel (RDF). RDF is typically used as a fuel in power plants.

After mechanically recovering recyclables from the waste, the remaining organic material is processed using biological methods. These include anaerobic digestion, in which microorganisms break down the waste to produce biogas, soil amendments and materials suitable for composting.

Because MRF technologies and systems can vary depending on each community’s waste stream profile and management goals, no two MRFs look exactly alike.

However, the main objectives generally overlap:

  • Reduce the volume of waste to be landfilled
  • Improve resource recovery through recycling and production of a degradable or combustible residue
  • Stabilize all waste residuals that end up in landfills

Smart energy recovery

Because municipal solid waste contains plastics, organics and other carbon-rich material, waste managers more and more are viewing their garbage as a potential source of renewable energy. Methods of converting waste to energy – or WTE in waste industry parlance – is the focus of this section .

WTE conversion occurs in two basic ways. One is incineration. This typically implies burning solid waste to heat steam-powered generators that produce electricity. The other way is to process waste in a manner that produces gases and liquid fuels that are used for commercial heat and power.

In some respects, WTE solutions fall outside of our smart cities focus on information and communications technologies. Moreover, some argue that because incineration generates emissions and is a relatively low-value use for previously manufactured materials, it falls outside the smart cities sustainability emphasis.

With those caveats in mind, let’s briefly take a look at where WTE is headed as a waste management tactic.

 

Incineration

Incineration has been, and still is, the most common way to recover energy from waste. It also reduces the volume of disposal waste by about 90%.

More than 800 WTE incinerators now operate in 40 countries, with the vast majority in Europe and Asia. The story is far different in the U.S., where public concern over emissions from incinerators remains entrenched, even with ever-tightening air quality regulations imposed by federal and state authorities. But that’s starting to change. In Florida, the Solid Waste Authority of Palm Beach County is completing the first WTE plant built in the U.S. since 1995. It will burn 99% of the municipal waste it receives and generate enough electricity for 85,000 homes.

Today’s WTE advocates argue that modern incineration facilities work differently from old-fashioned municipal incinerators. Modern

WTE facilities combust post-recycled waste in highly controlled and efficient combustion systems that are equipped with proven air emissions control components (such as fabric filters, electrostatic precipitators and scrubbers) that minimize potential emissions. Moreover, the process in modern facilities is closely monitored via control equipment, remote sensors and computers to ensure optimal combustion of the waste.

Other WTE technologies

While incineration dominates the WTE arena, other technologies are emerging that may appeal to cities where residents object to burning garbage.

Anaerobic digestion for biogas. Anaero-bic digestion (AD) technology is gaining traction in Europe, spurred on by European and national legislation aimed at reducing municipal waste going to landfills. The technology relies on anaerobic digesters that, with the help of bacteria, break down organic waste in an oxygen-free environment. Once confined to use on farms to break down manure waste, that’s no longer the case today for AD. One natural product of AD is biogas, which typically contains between 60% to 70% methane.

Gasification and pyrolysis. Some cities are using a process called gasification to extract biogas, a fuel that contains hydrogen and methane and can be used in various applications. Gasifica-tion involves heating of mixed waste or derived fuels at high temperatures. Oxygen is introduced to allow partial oxidation, but not enough for full combustion. In Australia, the city of Sydney is pushing forward with gasification, with the goal of producing syngas that can be fed back into a natural gas grid.

Another advanced thermal WTE pro-cess is pyrolysis. It involves energy-assisted heating of waste at controlled temperatures but with no oxygen introduced. Byproducts include volatile liquids and syngas – with relative proportions determined by process temperature.

Because gasification and pyrolysis technologies have limited operating history processing solid waste, it is difficult at this time for cities to draw conclusions about their viability.


Smart waste disposal

Waste disposal sits at the bottom of the waste management hierarchy as the least preferred option. Yet for many developing countries, which now practice open dumping of trash, trucking waste to managed landfills represents a cost-effective step in advanced waste management.

In this section, we look at smart waste disposal alternatives.

Sanitary landfills

Today’s sanitary landfills are engineered sites where waste is managed to prevent environmental contamination. These landfills isolate waste from the environment while it degrades biologically, chemically and physically.

A primary technology challenge at landfills is managing the release of methane-rich landfill gas caused by the natural breakdown of organic material. These gases can make a significant contribution to GHG emissions.

Smart waste disposal solutions start with removal and conversion of organics from the waste stream before they get to the landfill. In addition, waste managers can implement systems to collect and use the landfill-generated gas for heat or electricity production. Methane captured at San Diego’s Miramar Landfill provides 90% of the fuel to power electrical generators at the local Metropolitan Biosolids Center and North City Water Reclamation Plant.

Bioreactor landfills

Unlike a traditional sanitary landfill, a bioreactor landfill accelerates the decomposition of organic waste by intentionally adding liquid and air to enhance microbial processes. Where decomposition in a dry landfill can take

30 to 50 years, the process takes only 5 to 10 years at a bioreactor landfill. By stepping up the rate of decomposition, the volume of material in the landfill rapidly shrinks and creates space for more material. As a result, fewer new landfills are needed.

Managing the biological, chemical and physical processes occurring in a bioreactor landfill requires the use of remote monitoring networks, sensors and other sophisticated technologies.

While not yet widely adopted, bioreactor landfills are gaining attention due to the potential they have to extract landfill gases and convert them to fuels. The bioreactor landfill near Ashville, North Carolina recently added a gas-to-energy operation. It’s now producing enough fuel to run a generator that powers 1,110 homes a year.

Solar-capped landfills

When a landfill closes, the site is typically sealed with a polyethylene cap and then covered with several feet of compacted soil on which grass is planted.

One alternative capping system is to cover the buried garbage not with dirt and grass, but with solar panels. This not only eliminates the need to mow grass and replace eroding soil, but brings underutilized acreage into renewable energy production.

Landfill solar farms are already in place in several states, including the Hickory Ridge landfill near Atlanta, Georgia with 7,000 panels installed. The EPA and the U.S.Department of Energy are offering guidance to landfill operators and solar energy developers looking to integrate solar projects with retired landfills.

Dependencies for solid waste management

Improvements to a city’s solid waste management system in part depend on other city systems. Transportation systems, computing resources and data analytics capabilities can all play a role in waste management.

Efficient transportation networks, for example, are necessary for collection and transport of

debris to material and energy recovery facilities, as well as landfills. Computing resources such as GIS systems are valuable for planning collection routes, siting processing facilities, as well as choosing locations for landfills.

Cities with data analytic tools available can also better support smart waste management initiatives. Data analytics are often required to process and gain insights from data derived from sensors and RFID tags on trash and recycling containers.

Benefits of realizing solid waste targets

Smart solid waste management enhances a city’s livability, workability and sustainability in a variety of ways.

Livability

Lowering costs for citizens. Use of technologies that yield more efficient waste management – such sensors, RFID tags and GPS to optimize collection routes – can reduce operational costs and thereby lower or help con-trol garbage bills for residents and businesses. Waste recovery companies that pay municipalities to recover energy and materials from their solid waste stream also help offset waste management costs for cities and citizens.

Protecting public health. Open dumping and garbage burning are still widely practiced in many developing parts of the world. These activities continue to adversely impact urban air and water quality.

Uncollected garbage also takes a toll on public health. Refuse on the streets collects water where insects breed and potentially spread disease. Plastic bottles and packaging left in the open leach chemicals and toxins into the soil and water. Litter clogs and interferes with the function of sewer systems.

Modern waste management solutions will assure citizens that air and water resources are neither contaminated nor a threat to public health.

Increasing civic pride and property values. Smart waste management can visually and aesthetically improve communities by ensuring that garbage is removed and processed in an efficient, timely and responsible manner. Uncollected waste and litter is not only an eyesore, but encourages people to act less responsibly about how they handle waste. Clean streets and minimized litter, on the other hand, promote civic pride and higher property values.

Workability

Establishing an appealing business environment. Timely and efficient collection and removal of urban waste contributes to an attractive environment for a company’s workers and clients. Businesses that want to maintain a strong corporate image utilize advanced waste management practices – such as zero waste initiatives – and look to locate in cities that have strong waste management practices.

Creating new jobs. Cities that promote waste management solutions such as material recovery facilities and waste-to-energy plants open the door to new industries and jobs.

 

Sustainability

Recovering and reusing waste material. Recycling and landfill diversion are basic sustainability practices. Extracting metals, glass, plastics and paper from the municipal waste stream reduces the resources required to create such materials anew.

Reducing greenhouse gas emissions from landfills. Converting organic waste to compost and fuels reduces the amount of organic material going to a landfill. That in turn lowers the production and release of methane and other landfill gases into the atmosphere.

Creating more fuel-efficient waste collection systems. New technologies that involve sensors and RFID tags are enabling waste managers to better analyze and optimize collection routes for garbage trucks.

Enabling alternative energy deployments. Communities are beginning to use dormant acreage covering retired landfills as locations for solar panel installations.

Solid waste targets

The technology targets described in this section can help cities develop a smart solid waste management system that uses intelligence to efficiently and responsibly handle refuse.

Instrumentation and control

Waste collection, processing and disposal practices now include electronic devices and controls to make waste management smarter and more efficient.

Implement optimal instrumentation. New types of instrumentation are gaining traction in the waste management world. RFID tags embedded in recycling bins help identify the types of refuse generated by citizens and help track customer participation in sorting programs. Attaching RFID tags to specific types of items aids waste sorting at municipal recycling facilities.

Evidence from Europe suggests that these improvements can lower collection costs by up to 40%.

Smart wireless sensors embedded in public waste bins inform waste collectors when the container needs emptying, enabling development of efficient pick-up schedules and routes based on the actual fill levels and historic fill level patterns.

Sensors are also becoming key components in waste processing. Scanners and optical sensors at material recovery facilities enable efficient recyclables sorting. Sensors are also used to monitor landfill conditions.

Connectivity

Data collected by waste technology sensors requires transmission to servers or web services for storage, viewing, monitoring and analysis.

Connect devices with citywide, multi-service communications. Communications systems are an essential component in new waste technologies – RFID, GPS and GIS in particular.

Data transmitted from waste collection sensors and RFID tags typically relies on the presence of wireless and cellular (GPRS) network services. Depending on the vendor implementation, these connectivity resources may be part of a citywide, multi-service communications platform, or they may be included in the vendor’s service subscription.

Computing resources

Smart waste management solutions may require that cities expand their in-house computing capabilities. However, solution vendors may also enable waste authorities to connect to their applications via web services or APIs, eliminating the necessity of onsite IT deployments. 
 
Achieve operational optimization. LondonWaste, the company that handles municipal solid waste and recycling and generates landfill rubbish into energy is using Mercedes-Benz Arocs 3240K trucks from Council member Daimler. The new trucks are equipped with FleetBoard telematics that allows LondonWaste to collect vehicle-use data, track fuel consumption and review driver performance. “As we look to reduce waste, reuse it, recycle it, and recover energy, with disposal as the last resort, these low-emission, Euro 6 vehicles are playing a vital role in moving materials to the right places in order to increase their value and usability,” said Julian Appleby, LondonWaste’s head of operations.
 
Have access to a central GIS. A GIS helps a city know where everything is located. It’s useful across a range of city responsibility areas, including waste management. Using GIS software, waste collectors can, for example, plot neighborhood population density and income data against household addresses to estimate volumes of garbage for various city sectors. That, in turn, enables waste managers to develop efficient collection routes that save time and fuel.
 
GIS systems can also assist with siting waste processing facilities and choosing locations for landfills.
 

Analytics

With the expanded use of RFID tags, sensors and GPS data in more developed global economies, cities now have the opportunity to apply data analytics for optimizing waste collection, recycling and waste processing.

Achieve full situational awareness. As mentioned earlier, waste characterization studies should serve as the starting point for smart waste management initiatives. Cities and municipalities need to understand the types and volumes of waste being generated from their communities and where it’s coming from. Statistical analysis of data from waste collection operations, recovery facilities, city demographics and GIS can help cities see the big picture of their community’s waste stream.

Achieve operational optimization. Application of data analytics to GPS information and RFID data lets haulers optimize operations in several respects. The primary benefit is that waste fleet managers can determine in real-time the most efficient routing for collecting trash and recyclables.

ISO 37120: A yardstick for measuring city performance

In 2014, the International Organization for Standards announced an ISO standard that applies strictly to city performance. The document – known as ISO 37120:2014 – establishes a set of open data indicators to measure the delivery of city services and quality of life. It defines common methodologies that cities can use to measure their performance in areas such as energy, environment, finance, emergency response, governance, health, recreation, safety, solid waste, telecommunications, transportation, urban planning, wastewater, water, sanitation and more.

In the table at right we have indicated how the standard related to Solid Waste correspond to the Council’s Waste Management targets identified on the next page.

The solid waste theme is unique within ISO 37120 in that its 10 indicators are the most of any theme, perhaps underscoring the need for more effective management of resources globally. This indicator has cities reporting on the generation and recycling of both hazardous waste and municipal solid waste (MSW) – more commonly known as trash.

Solid Waste Indicators

Implement optimal instrumentation

Citywide, multi-service communications

Create citywide data management policy

Have access to a central GIS

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Core

16.1 Percentage of city population with regular solid waste collection (residential)

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16.2 Total collected municipal solid waste per capita

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16.3 Percentage of the city’s solid waste that is recycled

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TECHNOLOGY

Supporting

16.4 Percentage of the city's solid waste that is disposed of in a sanitary landfill

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16.5 Percentage of the city's solid waste that is disposed of in an incinerator

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16.6 Percentage of the city's solid waste that is burned openly

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16.7 Percentage of the city's solid waste that is disposed of in an open dump

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16.8 Percentage of the city's solid waste that is disposed of by other means

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16.9 Hazardous waste generation per capita (tons)

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16.10 Percentage of the city's hazardous waste that is recycled

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Enabler Waste Management Targets

How smart cities deploy and use ICT to enhance their waste management

Implementation Progress

NonePartialOver 50%Complete

Instrumentation & Control

Implement optimal instrumentation

Embed RFID tags in recycling bins and smart wireless sensors in waste bins

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Connectivity

Connect devices with citywide, multi-service communications

Ensure wireless and cellular network services for waste data transmission

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Interoperability

Adhere to open standards

Use open integration architectures and loosely coupled interfaces

Prioritize use of legacy investments

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Security & Privacy

Publish privacy rules

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Data Management

Create a citywide data management, transparency and sharing policy

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Computing Resources

Consider a cloud computing framework

Use an open innovation platform

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Have access to comprehensive device management

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Analytics

Achieve full situational awareness

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Pursue predictive analytics

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ADDITIONAL RESOURCES

Recovering and reusing waste material
Plastic Recycling Makes Public Spaces
Learn how Loos.fm in the Netherlands utilized plastic recycling to build a pet pavilion that was cost-effective and eco-friendly, and created a public space to benefit the community in this short video from Council member IBM.

Magpie Plastic Sorting Technology as Part of the Recycling Process
Watch this video tour of Council member Veolia’s “Magpie” intelligent sorting technology at its Integrated Waste Management Facility in Padworth, West Berkshire. The facility separates mixed plastic into different waste streams.

Target: Embed RFID tags in recycling bins
Smart Trash: Study on RFID Tags and the Recycling Industry
This technical report prepared for the European Commission will help urban waste management professionals weigh the opportunities and challenges of RFID (radio frequency identification) technologies to reduce waste management costs and streamline and automate for efficiencies.